512pp., b/w & colour illus., paperback, No Place, 2021
Filemon Elifas Shuumbwa (b. 1932) was Chief of the Ondonga and Chief Minister of the tribal Ovambo Executive from 1972. On 16 August 1975 he was shot in Onamugundu in the Ondangwa area. The apartheid government in South Africa blamed SWAPO for the murder and many SWAPO supporters, including the leader of SWAPO in Ovamboland, were arrested and held incommunicado for long periods without charge. Six members of SWAPO were eventually charged under the Terrorism Act and two of the men were sentenced to death in 1977 after a lengthy trial in Swakopmund. On appeal, the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court of South Africa set aside the conviction on the grounds that "a failure of justice occurred". All the accused were released and went into exile.